What is kidney failure?

The kidneys are pair of organs located toward the lower back. One kidney is on each side of the spine. They filter the blood and remove toxins from the body. Then kidneys send toxins to the bladder. The body later removes toxins during urination. Kidney failure occurs when your kidneys lose the ability to filter waste from your blood sufficiently.  

What are the symptoms?

In the late stages of CKD, as you are nearing kidney failure (ESRD), you may notice symptoms that are caused by waste and extra fluid building up in your body. 

You may notice one or more of the following symptoms if your kidneys are beginning to fail: 


Muscle cramps 

Nausea and vomiting 

Not feeling hungry 

Swelling in your feet and ankles 

Too much urine (pee) or not enough urine 

Trouble catching your breath 

Trouble sleeping 


If your kidneys stop working suddenly (acute kidney failure), you may notice one or more of the following symptoms: 

Abdominal (belly) pain 

Back pain 







Having one or more of any of the symptoms above may be a sign of serious kidney problems. If you notice any of these symptoms, you should contact your doctor right away. 

What are the causes of kidney failure?

Diabetes and hypertension are the leading causes of kidney failure. Herbal intoxication also causes damage to the kidneys. A sudden loss of blood flow to your kidneys can prompt kidney failure. Some diseases and conditions that cause loss of blood flow to the kidneys include: 

A heart attack 

Heart disease 

Scarring of the liver or liver failure 


A severe burn 

An allergic reaction 

A severe infection, such as sepsis 

Kidney stones 

An enlarged prostate 

Blood clots within your urinary tract 

Damage to the nerves that control your bladder

Other causes of kidney failure

Vasculitis, which is an inflammation of blood vessels 

Lupus, which is an autoimmune disease that can cause inflammation of many body organs 

Glomerulonephritis, which is an inflammation of the small blood vessels of the kidneys 

Hemolytic uremic syndrome, which involves the breakdown red blood cells following a bacterial infection, usually of the intestines 

Multiple myeloma, which is a cancer of the plasma cells in your bone marrow 

Scleroderma, which is an autoimmune disease that affects your skin 

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, which is a disorder that causes blood clots in small vessels 

Chemotherapy drugs, which are medications that treat cancer and some autoimmune diseases 

What is kidney disease?

Occurs when your kidney’s nephrons are damaged and whereby your glomerular filtration rate is below 60% and this happens over a long period of time. A condition known as kidney disease occurs when your kidneys lose their filtering ability, dangerous levels of fluid and waste accumulate in your body. 

Is kidney disease curable?

Kidney disease is not curable at all but it can be treated. When detected early stages it can be treated successfully. 

What are the different types of treatments for kidney failure?


Peritoneal dialysis 

Kidney transplant 

What is kidney transplant?

A kidney transplant is a surgical procedure to place a kidney from a live or deceased donor into a person whose kidneys no longer function properly. A kidney transplant is often the best treatment for kidney failure. 

What is acute renal failure?

It is a temporary condition whereby the kidneys suffered an injury that might be caused by a lot of factors for example toxic medication. This can be reversible if discovered in the early stages.

What is chronic renal failure?

It occurs when there is permanent damage to the kidneys and one has to undergo for hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. 

What is CAPD?

CAPD is a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis whereby the blood is been cleaned with the infusion of the dialysate solution through the abdominal cavity. These exchanges are done every 5 to 6 hours for 4 times a day. 

What is hemodialysis?

Hemodialysis is a treatment that is used to clean and remove waste products or harmful toxins and also remove excess fluid in the body by using a machine. It also helps to correct the electrolyte balance in the body for example your sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate levels in the body. 

How can I keep my kidneys healthy?

The following tips can help to keep the kidneys healthy:

Healthy lifestyle changes such as losing weight and regular exercise can reduce the development of kidney disease. Eating a balanced and healthy diet can also prevent kidney disease .Reduction in alcohol intake and quitting smoking is also good since the two factors can also cause heart disease and kidney disease. Drinking eight glasses of water daily will help to flush the harmful toxins in the kidneys. Control of high blood pressure and diabetes with treatment is essential since they are the leading causes of kidney failure. When diabetics have associated high blood pressure, special drugs called angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may help to protect their kidney function. 

What are the functions of the kidney?

Removal of waste products from the body is done by the kidneys. 

The formation and production of urine. 

The kidneys are responsible for maintaining the body pH levels. 

Production erythropoietin hormone which is responsible for the formation of red blood cell. 


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